One browser to rule them all?

Sizzy is the latest custom browser for a particular niche, this time design. Blisk is another that targets developer use cases. Ironically, it’s tagline is “One browser to rule them all” when, in fact, maybe it paints an alternative picture.

Time for an Eclipse

I remember a trip that Ben and I took to Ottawa. It was in the winter, and happened to occur at the same time as a visit from Obama (so, you know, in the good old days ;). We were visiting the core team at IBM behind Eclipse (and SWT and OSGI and ….) such as Steve Northover. The topic was web based IDEs, since we were working on Bespin and they were building Orion.

They were great to talk too, because they have so much experience in the world of tooling, having worked on them for decades.

One of the lessons I learned was that Eclipse was originally a foundation. If you look at the layers: SWT as a native widget toolkit, OSGI as a way to dynamically modularize, and Eclipse as the IDE bits…. you had a way to customize and build an IDE. Maximum flexibility.

But many Java developers downloaded Eclipse and used it. Many appreciated it, but many also found it far too confusing (Perspectives?). The IDE platform was being used as the end product. Since then, custom IDEs have been build with Eclipse, using the power of the platform but delivering a custom and opinionated view for it’s users.

I reflected on this as I played with niche browsers and wondered….

What if we had more browsers in our lives, not less?

What most think of as their “browser” is the Web platform with a product surrounding, and integrating with it. The main feel of the browser hasn’t felt that different for awhile. You still see the URL bar up top, still use tabs, etc.

A browser expected to be baked into an operating system, but we still see new browsers looking to innovate and find their own niches, such as funding models and verticals. So far, the browser itself feels familiar.

Unless you consider the “app browsers”. The apps that deeply embed the Web as a core part of their experience, such as Twitter, Facebook, Google’s Search app, and on and on. These have taken a particular view that is less of a blank slate that allows you to put in a URL (well, or search, or leap from a new tab page that has a feed too… ok there is some innovation there!).

Imagine how a browser would be different if it was oriented in a particular way? E.g. a developer browser that didn’t focus on speed for users, but on getting you as much data to help you debug and develop?

Just as with Eclipse, there are many ways to get there. You can customize through plugins, or you can have a seperate distro that is fully setup and ready.

It does make me wonder though…. can we find a new bar that allows for much more innovation in the product space, while we all work together to push the web platform forward, in a way where developers can ship to reach as many users as possible.

What would you like to see?

The Truth about Web Components and Frameworks

Have you noticed that there is a regular community.nextTick() that involves heated discussions around “Web Components vs. Frameworks” in some form or another.

It can be frustrating to see the same topics repeatedly pop-up, but I find it interesting to dive into why it does so.

A pattern I often see is a tension where we want to reduce a topic to a simple black and white abstraction, but when we fail to do so, we bounce off to fight another day.

Reductions and Abstractions

We are pattern matchers, and predictors of the future at our core. Much of our progression as a species has been in building up abstractions that allow us to model the future. So, it isn’t surprising that we try really hard in science and engineering to find abstractions.

Often science and math give us a purity of abstraction, whereas engineering has us in the complex muck where we hunt for patterns that are hiding in the world of a massive number of variables.

Early abstractions start out leaky. As we climb to the next level we need an escape hatch to where we are safe and knowledgeable. How much assembly was written in the early years of C vs. today?

Over time, if an abstraction is solid, we will be able to basically ignore a layer, at least in the main. There are a huge number of programmers that have never learned the assembly layer, and the machine layer below. Some may bemoan this at times, but if an abstract is good, many will get by.

NOTE: I still think it is optimal to understand one layer below (and one above if applicable!) as Glenn used to say..

How does this relate to Web Components and Frameworks?

Right! I contend that we are in a messy state of abstractions not being clean here, and the desire to find black and white is hitting up against the world of grey.

The simple to understand views are these:

  • Web Components lost and are unnecessary. Just use the component model in your framework of choice!
  • Web Components are all you need. <Components> all the way down baybee!
  • Use Web Components for UI leaf nodes, and an app framework to glue it together…. it all just works!
  • A company should only allow one framework to be used, and thus reuse is at that framework level!

In the real world, one of these could be true for one form of truth, but they miss all of the nuance and ignore many other forms of truth, such as:

  • For many apps, simple orchestration using Web Components, beyond leaf nodes is fine
  • For many apps, it is overkill to build reusable Web Components, and that’s fine
  • It is rare to see a company (of size) keep every application on the same version of the same framework, and this approach has many many trade offs
  • Sometimes companies buy other companies, and they come with code and legacy
  • It’s ok to experiment with new frameworks and new paradigms, it’s how we progress
  • Web Components aren’t the only way that you can share code, and that’s fine
  • Gluing between component models isn’t fun, but it’s also fine
  • There are very different roles. If you are a vendor of components you will think very differently about how you scale the component set and who you want to target

We can go on and on and on. It’s messy, and it can also work. The environment is changing around us (browser support, evolving libraries, new paradigms such as the recent “compilers”).

I think it is only a good thing for the platform to give us a way to define <our-components>, and I love seeing the interop change over time.

But at the end of the day, what I care most about is that we can be productive, and our ecosystem has content that users love (which includes, but isn’t solely subject to, performance… have you setup performance budgets?).

Do we have all of the components we need to move fast? Tooling? Can we fix bundling to not be a nightmare for developers?

If we can honestly look at ourselves and feel like we are doing the right thing there, the rest is gravy.

It’s OK living in the gray. It’s OK not having worked out the perfect abstractions, yet.

The Doomed Rewrite

It just happened again. I spoke to a company, with some great engineers, and they just experienced the doomed rewrite.

I remember the days of the Monty Hall Rewrite, which is a situation I would much prefer to DOOM. With Monty Hall, you run into the following situation:

  • A website uses a given tech stack. It feels legacy, and the team gets to a point where it is time to consider a rewrite, to wipe clean the technical debt. This is a very expensive decision, and often the better path is to iterate, but there does often come a time
  • A new website is created, using a newer, shinier, tech stack
  • There is a comparison made between the two, which often isn’t very fair, as it muddies the water based on the fact that the difference isn’t just the tech stack. You have all of the domain knowledge and learnings from the older version(s).

The doomed version, when you choose door three, follows a similar path, but the ending isn’t as happy.

You are not Google, is a great post that basically describes the important value in taking the time to understand that you should validate that you are choosing the right tool for the job. It focuses on backend infrastructure, but the same arguments can be made in the world of frontend.

Just as it is important to understand the problem that Cassandra was solving (database writes for the Add to Cart action), it is important to think through the front-end needs (e.g. what are Facebook’s biggest needs with React, or Google’s with Angular, or Lit, etc).

You want to create the right balance for your needs, and they are varied.

For example, the scenarios below are not the same:

  • You have an existing business at scale, and need to be able to build something that results in higher quality, developer velocity, and will scale with your growth
  • You are creating a new product, and need to build an experience that will find product market fit. Quality attracts, so you don’t want use a stack that will hurt you from finding this fit, but if everything takes off like a rocket ship and you need to rewrite…. that is a win condition

The doom scenario that I am seeing far too often these days relates to the first scenario. A great business is in place, but technical debt has caught up to the team, and they want to take a chance to rewrite in a modern stack that will result in a beautiful PWA experience that will scale to all of their users use cases.

The new stack is assembled, and a small prototype is built against the legacy APIs. It works! Full steam ahead! Fast forward to the launch of the new version, and oops….. it’s kinda slow.

Lighthouse is run for audits, and WebPageTest shows you The Truth in The Trace, and the team has that sinking feeling. The good news is that there are some quick wins: some preconnect, prefetch, and preloads help the cause, images are squooshed, etc.

“There are 44 copies of Object.assign polyfills!”

— Default pit

But this isn’t enough. There’s just way too much JavaScript. Unfortunately, it really is far too easy to npm install yourself to large dependency chains that all bring in polyfills and just a ton of code. It’s time to go back to the drawing board, and see what needs to be re-architected. Just when you were ready to build off of the new base, you have to work on fixing the foundation, and you have that dreaded thought….. do we need to rewrite the rewrite?

This is when I start to tear up. All of that work, and you aren’t at the promised land at all.

How do you avoid this?

You need to start with a performance budget, and stick to it as you grow. Make sure your architecture scales as the app builds (e.g. each new page doesn’t add to a huge bundle that has to be loaded at once. Code split FTW).

Choose the right tools for the job. If you are a content site that averages 1.2 pages per user session (you know who you are 😉…. don’t load the entire world up front. Just show the content. Think about the areas of first load and separate that from subsequent loads. E.g. if you have more of an app, follow the Netflix pattern and have a super lean home / login that then loads up “the app” once there is time (users take time to read…. that’s great Idle time to do work!).

It’s never been a better time to build a web app that can scale to users across feature phones, smart phones, tablets, desktop, and more. If you hit the quality bar you have happy users coming to you from search and social…. and your loyal users will add you to their home screen, from the browser or store.

There is a lot we can do to make great experiences occur as more of a side effect of the toolboxes we have available, but even still: Run. Lighthouse. Early. And. Often. And then you will be set up to brag about your successful Monty Hall rewrite.

Want to learn more about getting started? Check out web.dev!